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Adapting high -level language programs for parallel processing using data flow. EASY-FLOW, a very high -level data flow language, is introduced for the purpose of adapting programs written in a conventional high -level language to a parallel environment. The level of parallelism provided is of the large-grained variety in which parallel activities take place between subprograms or processes.

For computational fluid dynamics, the governing equations are solved on a discretized domain of nodes, faces, and cells. The quality of the grid or mesh can be a driving source for error in the results. While refinement studies can help guide the creation of a mesh, grid quality is largely determined by user expertise and understanding of the flow physics. Adaptive mesh refinement is a technique for enriching the mesh during a simulation based on metrics for error, impact on important parameters, or location of important flow features.

This can offload from the user some of the difficult and ambiguous decisions necessary when discretizing the domain. This work explores the implementation of adaptive mesh refinement in an implicit, unstructured, finite-volume solver. Consideration is made for applying modern computational techniques in the presence of hanging nodes and refined cells.

The approach is developed to be independent of the flow solver in order to provide a path for augmenting existing codes. It is designed to be applicable for unsteady simulations and refinement and coarsening of the grid does not impact the conservatism of the underlying numerics. The effect on high -order numerical fluxes of fourth- and sixth-order are explored.

Provided the criteria for refinement is appropriately selected, solutions obtained using adapted meshes have no additional error when compared to results obtained on traditional, unadapted meshes. In order to leverage large-scale computational resources common today, the methods are parallelized using MPI. Parallel performance is considered for several test problems in order to assess scalability of both adapted and unadapted grids. Dynamic repartitioning of the mesh during refinement is crucial for load balancing an evolving grid.

Development of the methods outlined here depend on a dual-memory approach that is described in detail. Validation of the solver developed here against a number of motivating problems shows favorable. Stochastic parallel gradient descent based adaptive optics used for a high contrast imaging coronagraph. An adaptive optics AO system based on a stochastic parallel gradient descent SPGD algorithm is proposed to reduce the speckle noises in the optical system of a stellar coronagraph in order to further improve the contrast.

The principle of the SPGD algorithm is described briefly and a metric suitable for point source imaging optimization is given. The feasibility and good performance of the SPGD algorithm is demonstrated by an experimental system featured with a actuator deformable mirror and a Hartmann-Shark wavefront sensor.

The LCA can modulate the incoming light to generate a pupil apodization mask of any pattern. A circular stepped pattern is used in our preliminary experiment and the image contrast shows improvement from 10 -3 to 10 Design strategies for irregularly adapting parallel applications. Achieving scalable performance for dynamic irregular applications is eminently challenging.

Traditional message-passing approaches have been making steady progress towards this goal; however, they suffer from complex implementation requirements. The use of a global address space greatly simplifies the programming task, but can degrade the performance of dynamically adapting computations.

In this work, we examine two major classes of adaptive applications, under five competing programming methodologies and four leading parallel architectures. Results indicate that it is possible to achieve message-passing performance using shared-memory programming techniques by carefully following the same high level strategies.

Adaptive applications have computational work loads and communication patterns which change unpredictably at runtime, requiring dynamic load balancing to achieve scalable performance on parallel machines.

Efficient parallel implementations of such adaptive applications are therefore a challenging task. This work examines the implementation of two typical adaptive applications, Dynamic Remeshing and N-Body, across various programming paradigms and architectural platforms. We compare several critical factors of the parallel code development, including performance, programmability, scalability, algorithmic development, and portability.

Directory of Open Access Journals Sweden. Expressed sequence tag analysis of clones identified unigenes, of which were annotated as known genes while a total of unigenes were not associated with any known gene. Unigenes with hits were categorized according to biological processes, molecular function, and cellular compartmentalization. Given the young tissue used to make the root libraries, genes for catalytic activity and binding were highly expressed.

Comparisons with previous root EST sequencing and between the two libraries made here resulted in a set of genes to study further for differential gene expression and adaptation to low P, such as a 14 kDa praline-rich protein, a metallopeptidase, tonoplast intrinsic protein, adenosine triphosphate ATP citrate synthase, and cell proliferation genes expressed in the low P treated plants. Given that common beans are often grown on acid soils of the tropics and subtropics that are usually low in P these genes and the two parallel libraries will be useful for selection for better uptake of this essential macronutrient.

The importance of EST generation for common bean root tissues under low P and other abiotic soil stresses is also discussed.

This work considers black-box Bayesian inference over high -dimensional parameter spaces. The well-known and widely respected adaptive Metropolis AM algorithm is extended herein to asymptotically scale uniformly with respect to the underlying parameter dimension, by respecting the variance, for Gaussian targets.

The result- ing algorithm, referred to as the dimension-independent adaptive Metropolis DIAM algorithm, also shows improved performance with respect to adaptive Metropolis on non-Gaussian targets. This algorithm is further improved, and the possibility of probing high -dimensional targets is enabled, via GPU-accelerated numerical libraries and periodically synchronized concurrent chains justified a posteriori.

The scaling to multiple CPUs and GPUs exhibits a form of strong scaling in terms of the time necessary to reach a certain convergence criterion, through a combination of longer time per sample batch weak scaling and yet fewer necessary samples to convergence.

This is illustrated by e ciently sampling from several Gaussian and non-Gaussian targets for dimension d Parallel adaptive simulations on unstructured meshes. This paper discusses methods being developed by the ITAPS center to support the execution of parallel adaptive simulations on unstructured meshes.

The paper first outlines the ITAPS approach to the development of interoperable mesh, geometry and field services to support the needs of SciDAC application in these areas. The paper then demonstrates the ability of unstructured adaptive meshing methods built on such interoperable services to effectively solve important physics problems.

Attention is then focused on ITAPs' developing ability to solve adaptive unstructured mesh problems on massively parallel computers. Parallel Monitors for Self- adaptive Sessions. Full Text Available The paper presents a data-driven model of self- adaptivity for multiparty sessions.

System choreography is prescribed by a global type. Participants are incarnated by processes associated with monitors, which control their behaviour.

Each participant can access and modify a set of global data, which are able to trigger adaptations in the presence of critical changes of values. The use of the parallel composition for building global types, monitors and processes enables a significant degree of flexibility: an adaptation step can dynamically reconfigure a set of participants only, without altering the remaining participants, even if the two groups communicate. Adapting algorithms to massively parallel hardware. In the recent years, the trend in computing has shifted from delivering processors with faster clock speeds to increasing the number of cores per processor.

This marks a paradigm shift towards parallel programming in which applications are programmed to exploit the power provided by multi-cores. Usually there is gain in terms of the time-to-solution and the memory footprint.

Specifically, this trend has sparked an interest towards massively parallel systems that can provide a large number of processors, and possibly computing nodes, as in the GPUs and MPPAs Massively Parallel Processor Arrays. In this project, the focus was on two distinct computing problems: k-d tree searches and track seeding cellular automata. The goal was to adapt the algorithms to parallel systems and evaluate their performance in different cases. Parallel Algorithm for Adaptive Numerical Integration.

This paper presents an automation algorithm for integration using adaptive trapezoidal method. The interval is adaptively divided where the width of sub interval are different and fit to the behavior of its function. The estimated solution is valid if the error is still in a reasonable range, fulfil certain criteria. The problems are solved in two different kinds of processor, root processor and worker processor.

Root processor function ti divide a main problem into sub problems and distribute them to worker processor. The division mechanism may go further until all of the sub problem are resolved. The solution of each sub problem is then submitted to the root processor such that the solution for the main problem can be obtained. The algorithm is implemented on C-programming-base distributed computer networking system under parallel virtual machine platform.

The result- ing algorithm, referred to as the dimension-independent adaptive Metropolis DIAM algorithm, also shows improved performance with respect to adaptive Metropolis on non.

High -speed parallel counter. This paper describes a high -speed parallel counter that contains 31 inputs and 15 outputs and is implemented by integrated circuits of series The counter is designed for fast sampling of events according to the number of particles that pass simultaneously through the hodoscopic plane of the detector. The minimum delay of the output signals relative to the input is 43 nsec. The duration of the output signals can be varied from 75 to nsec.

High order methods are frequently used in computational simulation for their high accuracy. An efficient way to avoid unnecessary computation in smooth regions of the solution is to use adaptive meshes which employ fine grids only in areas where they are needed.

Nonconforming spectral elements allow the grid to be flexibly adjusted to satisfy the computational accuracy requirements. The method is suitable for computational simulations of unsteady problems with very disparate length scales or unsteady moving features, such as heat transfer, fluid dynamics or flame combustion. A new technique is introduced to efficiently implement MEM in 3-D nonconforming meshes.

By introducing an "intermediate mortar", the proposed method decomposes the projection between 3-D elements and mortars into two steps. In each step, projection matrices derived in 2-D are used. This new technique can be used for both h- and p-type adaptation.

This method is applied to an unsteady 3-D moving heat source problem. With our new MEM implementation, mesh adaptation is able to efficiently refine the grid near the heat source and coarsen the grid once the heat source passes. The savings in computational work resulting from the dynamic mesh adaptation is demonstrated by the reduction of the the number of elements used and CPU time spent. MEM and mesh adaptation , respectively, bring irregularity and dynamics to the computer memory access pattern.

Hence, they provide a good way to gauge the performance of computer systems when running scientific applications whose memory access patterns are irregular and unpredictable. High -resolution multi-code implementation of unsteady Navier-Stokes flow solver based on paralleled overset adaptive mesh refinement and high -order low-dissipation hybrid schemes. The overset grid assembly OGA process based on collection detection theory and implicit hole-cutting algorithm achieves an automatic coupling for the near-body and off-body solvers, and the error-and-try method is used for obtaining a globally balanced load distribution among the composed multiple codes.

The results of flows over high Reynolds cylinder and two-bladed helicopter rotor show that the combination of high -order hybrid scheme, advanced turbulence model, and overset adaptive mesh refinement can effectively enhance the spatial resolution for the simulation of turbulent wake eddies. Parallel paving: An algorithm for generating distributed, adaptive , all-quadrilateral meshes on parallel computers.

Paving is an automated mesh generation algorithm which produces all-quadrilateral elements.

Calibration curve is a regression model used to predict the unknown concentrations of analytes of interest based on the response of the instrument to the known standards. Some statistical analyses are required to choose the best model fitting to the experimental data and also evaluate the linearity and homoscedasticity of the calibration curve. Using an internal standard corrects for the loss of analyte during sample preparation and analysis provided that it is selected appropriately. After the best regression model is selected, the analytical method needs to be validated using quality control QC samples prepared and stored in the same temperature as intended for the study samples. Most of the international guidelines require that the parameters, including linearity, specificity, selectivity, accuracy, precision, lower limit of quantification LLOQ , matrix effect and stability, be assessed during validation.

ENVI Versions 4. Their use, duplication, and disclosure are subject to the restrictions stated in the license agreement. ITT Visual Information Solutions reserves the right to make changes to this document at any time and without notice. Limitation of Warranty ITT Visual Information Solutions makes no warranties, either express or implied, as to any matter not expressly set forth in the license agreement, including without limitation the condition of the software, merchantability, or fitness for any particular purpose. ITT Visual Information Solutions shall not be liable for any direct, consequential, or other damages suffered by the Licensee or any others resulting from use of the software packages or their documentation.

A Machine Learning interview calls for a rigorous interview process where the candidates are judged on various aspects such as technical and programming skills, knowledge of methods and clarity of basic concepts. If you aspire to apply for machine learning jobs, it is crucial to know what kind of interview questions generally recruiters and hiring managers may ask. This is an attempt to help you crack the machine learning interviews at major product based companies and start-ups. Usually, machine learning interviews at major companies require a thorough knowledge of data structures and algorithms. In the upcoming series of articles, we shall start from the basics of concepts and build upon these concepts to solve major interview questions. Machine learning interviews comprise of many rounds, which begin with a screening test. This comprises solving questions either on the white-board, or solving it on online platforms like HackerRank, LeetCode etc.

Multiple-Choice Test When using the transformed data model to find the constants of the regression model Linear regression constants are given by. 2 This equation is still a nonlinear equation in terms of b, and can be solved best by numerical Solution. The correct answer is (C). We are fitting the above data to the.

Linear equation. Select the amplitude and frequency desired. Hi, I'm trying to simulate Rossler Oscillators with a 4. Embrace the power of parentheses.

Adapting high -level language programs for parallel processing using data flow. EASY-FLOW, a very high -level data flow language, is introduced for the purpose of adapting programs written in a conventional high -level language to a parallel environment. The level of parallelism provided is of the large-grained variety in which parallel activities take place between subprograms or processes. For computational fluid dynamics, the governing equations are solved on a discretized domain of nodes, faces, and cells. The quality of the grid or mesh can be a driving source for error in the results.

Homogeneous Equations A differential equation is a relation involvingvariables x y y y. Introduction to Matlab. You have to specify the differential equation in a string, using Dy for y' t and y for y t : E. You define your differential equations based on that ordering of variables in the vector, you define your initial The system of differential equations we're trying to solve is The first thing to notice is that this is not a first The function needs to tell matlab how to get from those variables to , , and. Differential equation is called the equation which contains the unknown function and its derivatives of different orders Our online calculator is able to find the general solution of differential equation as well as the particular one.

Уже больше полувека оно занималось тем, что собирало электронные разведданные по всему миру и защищало американскую секретную информацию. О его существовании знали только три процента американцев. - АНБ, - пошутил приятель, - означает Агентство, которого Никогда не Было. Со смешанным чувством тревоги и любопытства Беккер принял приглашение загадочного агентства. Он проехал тридцать семь миль до их штаб-квартиры, раскинувшейся на участке площадью тридцать шесть акров среди лесистых холмов Форт-Мида в штате Мэриленд.

Она замерла и непроизвольно задержала дыхание, чувствуя на себе взгляд Хейла. Сьюзан повернулась, и Хейл, пропуская ее вперед, сделал широкий взмах рукой, точно приветствуя ее возвращение в Третий узел. - После вас, Сью, - сказал .

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## Graphimcofor

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## Anton L.

It is used in some forms of nonlinear regression.

## Aramis E.

This set of Linear Algebra Multiple Choice Questions & Answers (MCQs) focuses on “Curve Fitting”. 1. Fit a straight line into the following data. x: 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5.